Guatemala has consistently allocated seats to off of closed lists to parties using the d’Hondt highest average method of proportional representation within departmental constituencies and separately off of a national list without regard to the outcome in the departmental constituencies. However, important changes over time differentiate Guatemala’s electoral systems for the Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la República).
The following table shows the apportionment of mandates to departmental constituencies and the national list from 1985 through 2015:
GUATEMALA 1 (1985-90)
During this time, the vote in the first round of the presidential election and for the national list deputies was fused. Put another way, the first round presidential vote served as the basis on which national list deputies were allocated using the d’Hondt highest average system of proportional representation.
The deputies elected from departmental constituencies were allocated by a separate vote but also according to the d’Hondt method. Both the national and departmental seats were allocated to candidates off of closed party lists.
Guatemala increased the total number of deputies from 100 to 116 in 1990–an increase of 4 national list deputies and 12 departmental constituency deputies.
GUATEMALA 2 (1994-5)
Beginning in 1994, Guatemala ended the fusion of presidential and national list votes. Instead, voters cast separate votes for national list and departmental constituency deputies. Both sets of seats continued to be allocated to parties off of closed lists utilizing the d’Hondt method.
As shown in the above table, Guatemala reduce the number of seats from 116 to 80 in 1994–a major change in the size of the legislature and district magnitudes.
GUATEMALA 3 (1999)
Guatemala increased significantly the size of the legislature (greater than 20%), so I define the electoral system used in 1999 as new. The number of mandates increased from 80 to 113 starting in 1999. Otherwise, the electoral system remained the same.
GUATEMALA 4 (2003-)
Once again, Guatemala increased significantly the size of the legislature (greater than 20%), so I define the electoral system used starting in 2003 as new. The number of seats rose from 113 to 158 starting in 2003. Otherwise, the electoral system remained the same.