HUNGARY 1 (1990-2010)
Hungary’s unusually complicated mixed electoral system to elect the 386 members of the National Assembly (Országgyűlés) was described as Supermixed by Louis Massicotte and André Blais. Voters possessed two votes–one for a single-member constituency and one for a closed party list.
All of Hungary’s 176 single-member districts were nested within Hungary’s 20 regions–the 19 counties and the city of Budapest. These were awarded based on the single-member constituency votes. In the first round, candidates required that they gain at least 50% of the vote with a turnout of at least 50% of the electorate in order to win. Otherwise, only the top three candidates along with any other candidates that received at least 15% of the vote advanced to the second round. However, if turnout was under 50%, the results were invalid and all candidates advanced to the second round.
Even if they qualify for the second round, candidates could withdraw. In the second round, the candidate who garnered the most votes won unless turnout was under 25% of the electorate. In the case of an invalid result due to low turnout, the seats were added to the number of compensation mandates (see below) and the votes added to the party totals used to allocate them.
Regional List Constituencies
There were 152 regional list mandates. Hungary’s 20 regions served as electoral constituencies for their allocation to closed regional lists based on the party vote. Parties had to run candidates in at least 25% of a region’s single-member constituencies or at least two constituencies, whichever was higher, to qualify to run a party list. Additionally, parties had to pass a legal threshold of 5% of all list votes (4% in 1990) to receive any regional list seats.
Regional list seats were allocated first based on the Hagenbach-Bischoff quota (votes cast divided by the number of seats plus one). Remaining seats went to parties in descending order of votes not used toward full Hagenbach-Bischoff quotas but parties had to have at least 2/3 of a quota to receive these seats. Any seats left unallocated were added to the number of compensation mandates (see below).
As for the single-member constituencies, turnout had to surpass 50% of the electorate for a valid first-round result. Otherwise, voters cast a party vote in the second round with seats allocated as long as turnout exceeds 25%. If turnout fell below 25%, the seats were added to the number of compensation mandates (see below) and the votes added to the party totals used to allocate them.
There were 58 compensation mandates, though the number was always higher due to the addition of unallocated regional list and constituency mandates. Parties had to nominate regional lists in at least 7 regions as well as pass the legal threshold of 5% of the regional list vote to qualify for compensation mandates.
Compensation mandates were allocated according to the d’Hondt highest average system of proportional representation based on a complex calculation of votes unused to win constituency or regional list mandates. A party’s vote total for the purpose of compensation mandates included (a) votes cast for a losing constituency candidate in the first valid round, (b) regional list votes that did not go towards the successful election of a list candidate. If a list received regional list mandates for less than a full Hagenbach-Bischoff quota, the number of votes needed to complete the quotas were subtracted from a party’s total.
The following table shows the constituency results in Pest County Constituency #2 (Vác):
In the first round, turnout exceeded 50%, so only the top three candidates and any other candidates that won more than 15% of the vote qualified for the second round. The fourth place candidate fell short of 15%, so only the top three advanced. In the second round, Bábiné Szottfried Gabriella of Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Union/KDNP won the seat. The votes from the first round for the losing three candidates affiliated with parties are added toward their totals for compensation mandates.
The following table shows the regional list results and seat allocation process in Pest County:
MDF and Civil Movement did not receive at least 5% of all list votes cast in Hungary, so they were not eligible to receive list mandates. The Hagenbach-Bischoff quota for Pest County in 2010 equaled 41,831.3 (627,469–the share of valid votes–divided by 15–the number of available seats plus one). The Quotas column shows how many multiples of the Hagenbach-Bischoff quota were won by each eligible party.
Seats were initially awarded for full multiples of the quota, as shown in the Full Quotas column. Two seats still remained, so seats were also awarded to parties with remaining votes equal to more than two-thirds of a quota. The portion of the number to the right of the decimal points in the Quotas column is the share of a quota comprised by the remainder votes. Only Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Union had more than 2/3 of a quota left, as shown in the 2/3 Quota column.
Since no other parties had more than two-thirds of a quota left, the last available seat was added to the number of compensation mandates. As Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Union gained a seat for less than a full quota, the number of votes needed to complete the quota were deducted from its compensation mandate total, equal to the amount shown in the Deduction column. The three parties with remainder votes had those votes, shown in the Remainder column, added to their total for compensation mandates.
The following table shows the allocation of compensation mandates in 2010:
MDF and Civil Movement did not receive at least 5% of all list votes cast in Hungary, so they are not eligible to receive compensation mandates. The SMDs column shows the votes cast for losing candidates in the first valid round across all Hungarian constituencies. The List column shows the number of regional list votes that did not go toward a filled mandate with deductions (i.e. where a party won a seat for less than a full quota, the number of votes needed to complete the quota were deducted). The Total column shows the total number of unused votes, called fragmentary votes, for both SMDs and regional lists.
All constituency seats were filled in either the first or second round. However, 6 regional-list mandates went unallocated and were added to the 58 compensation mandates for a total of 64 compensation mandates. These mandates were allocated by the d’Hondt method and each eligible party won as many national list seats as shown in the Seats column. As at the regional level, all lists are closed, so seats were allocated in list order.
HUNGARY 2 (2014-)
Hungary altered its electoral system in advance of the 2014 elections but it still remains more complicated than a more standard mixed system. All turnout requirements have been eliminated. The total number of seats has been reduced to 199.
The number of constituency seats was cut to 106 with allocation in a single round plurality winners. Single-member constituencies are still nested within Hungary’s 20 regions.
National List Mandates
Regional list mandates have been eliminated with the list vote instead utilized to allocate 93 seats off of a national list by the d’Hondt method. New legal thresholds to qualify for list seats have been put into place. Parties must receive over 5% of the list vote to qualify for list seats. Joint lists of 2 parties require 10% of the list vote and lists of 3 or more parties need 15% of the list vote. Parties must also run at least 27 single-member constituency candidates across at least 9 counties and the capital in order to file a national list.
Before the allocation of list seats, the total list vote is adjusted based on surplus votes from the single-member constituencies. Parties that lose in a constituency have their votes added to their countrywide list total. When a party wins a constituency seat, it still has its votes added to its list total but only after the votes won by the second-place constituency candidate plus one have been subtracted from its constituency vote.
Minority lists are exempted from the legal thresholds and receive a list seat if they win at least 1/4 of Hare quota of the total of the adjusted list votes plus the votes cast for minority lists (about 0.269% of list votes). In 2014, the adjusted list vote equaled 8,172,871 and the number of votes won by minority lists equaled 19,543, so the quota for a minority party to receive a seat was 0.25 x (8,172,871+ 19,543)/93, or 22,022. Minority lists must be sponsored by officially recognized minority self-governments and may not run joint lists. No minority lists gained seats in 2014.